PResidential vitriol


The Bensten vs. Quayle debate for VP in 1988

“Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you’re no Jack Kennedy.”  — Sen. Lloyd Bensten (1988)

I long for the days when the quote above was the nastiest personal insult ever hurled at a candidate during a televised national debate. Senator Dan Quayle was running for vice president against Senator Lloyd Bentsen and was stating he wasn’t too young for the job. “I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency,” said Quayle, which was followed by Bentsen’s hard-hitting put-down.

Bensten’s put-down doesn’t come close to the insults hurled by the Republican candidates for president in 2016. This campaign has sunk so deeply into schoolboy bullying it’s truly horrifying. Up until now, our modern presidential campaigns have been reasonably civil and focused on avoiding potential public relations pitfalls.

However, this isn’t the first-ever nasty presidential campaign. In 1928, Republicans started a rumor that candidate Al Smith, a Catholic, was planning a secret tunnel from Manhattan to the Vatican, and the Pope would have say in all matters should Smith be elected president. Before Donald Trump called his opponent “Little Mario” there was “Little Giant,” Abe Lincoln’s reference to his 1860 rival Stephen Douglas’ height. At 5’4″, others called Douglas “about five feet nothing in height and about the same in diameter.” Douglas struck back, calling Lincoln a “horrid-looking wretch, sooty and scoundrelly in aspect,” and “the leanest, lankest, most ungainly mass of legs and arms and hatchet face ever strung on a single frame.”

In 1828, opposition Federalists called Andrew Jackson’s previously divorced wife–a major taboo back then– a “dirty black wench,” a “convicted adulteress” and said she was prone to “open and notorious lewdness.” And in America’s second-ever presidential election, candidate Thomas Jefferson hired a writer to smear President John Adams, who was referred to as “a hideous hermaphroditical character which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman.”

We shouldn’t take comfort in these examples. The current  candidates’ presidential vitriol goes beyond anything before it. Decorum, class, and attention to thoughtful communication strategy is, sadly, missing from the GOP primaries. Let’s hope it doesn’t continue. Your thoughts?

51 thoughts on “PResidential vitriol

  1. Pamela Lacayo

    When I hear the atrocities that fly out of the mouths of today’s presidential candidates, it turns my stomach, It boggles my mind what comes out of these people’s mouths.

    The saddest part is that the whole world sees it. We are a mockery for other countries. This is not a crisis PR’s worst nightmare but close enough. Trump is bully with no filter, Clinton is a liar and Sanders a socialist. If we were back in the 1950-60s with the red scare, Sanders would probably be red-labeled and jailed. Trump would have no chance to get close to the presidency and Clinton, well, if I can’t say something nice, maybe I shouldn’t say anything at all.

    I am afraid for the future of this nation. That’s all.

  2. Sabrina Cwenar

    The presidential debates have become a mockery. They are more like a reality television show. When Trump speaks, I cringe at the language he uses as well as the content he shares. I hope we can get back to a place where their is respect in these debates because the issues are very important. The debates should not be used as a form of entertainment.

  3. pollakvictoria

    These politicians need a lesson in crisis management and social etiquette. They are giving America a bad image every time they act out. Why would we want to see our possible president losing his/her cool when it comes down to a tough situation. We want to see them handle it carefully with grace and good morals. This isn’t the debate team or a Facebook group chat to make fun of each other. They should be concerned about the important issues about running our country, not picking at each other.

  4. katericciardi

    I have never been interested in politics and the political strategies of this year’s politicians has certainly caught my attention, but in a bad way. My opinions are not good and the PR of the candidates needs to change to have a more favorable view.

  5. sabrinacwenar

    Social Media has really changed the way that the Presidential candidates reach an audience. The masses are exposed to the amount of derogatory statements that Donald Trump has expressed in regards to many issues in society including gender and racial issues. A PR professional would most likely think that all of the negative buzz that Donald Trump has generated in his campaign, especially on Facebook, would have negatively impacted his campaign. However, it has done the opposite unfortunately. I don’t think the debates should be about entertainment and I am concerned for the future of our country if a candidate who exemplifies hateful ideologies openly could potentially win.

  6. Saralynn Kupperberg

    It’s unbelievable some of the things that we have seen and heard this year from the people who are trying to persuade us to make them our next leader. Politics has always been a dirty business, where attacks on other candidates are a common occurrence, but nothing this vulgar has ever occurred. In regards to the Donald Trump campaign, he has said so many derogatory, crude, and above all offensive things over the past few months that I could have sworn would have led to a PR disaster that would have ultimately ended his campaign. Unfortunately, this is not the case, as all of these remarks have helped with Trump’s growing popularity.

  7. Sharlys Leszczuk

    To me, the offensive rhetoric and personal attacks witnessed in the GOP primaries is a sign of weakness, which is understandable. The Republican Party was in desperate need of a rebranding even before “he who shall not be named” took the party’s title. I hope that this is a wake up call for republicans across the United States to move forward instead of dragging their feet in the ground as the rest of the country tries to pull them ahead.

    In my opinion, the conservative republican beliefs and disregard for progressive policies is the party’s last attempt to hold onto what they believe in before having to admit to being wrong. The offensive language and politically meaningless attacks at the GOP debates goes to show that the party is worthy of being mocked and the insults made, comparable to 5th graders’ “yo mama” jokes, are more highly regarded than their aspirations and qualifications to become one of the most powerful leaders in the world.

  8. Katie Hammer

    I agree that the presidential debates this year have been more of a reality show than actual debates. It’s disappointing that the election is more focused on power than it is on issues. When this election process began, I watched the first debates and was completely turned off by watching any other. It was so childish that these candidates were calling each other names instead of stating their policies. As the debates went on, it got worse. For the rest of the debates I would only read about it, for I couldn’t stand to hear the petty bickering. I’m glad that this issue is not one that a small amount of people have noticed. I also wonder if their publicist has tried to couch the candidates into steering clear of the nonsense. Maybe they don’t even have a publicist, which they need to invest in.

  9. Erin Schmitt

    I completely agree with your views on the lack of class presented by this year’s presidential candidates. They’ve turned presidential debates into a bad reality show in a sense, with each character trying to outdo the others with outlandish and brash sound bytes. Debates have become a parody and mockery of what they should be, as discussing crucial topics in a civilized and respectful manner has fallen to the wayside for back-and-forth personal bickering. If feels as if the candidates are devoting more energy to attacking their opponents in a way that they’re fighting in a schoolyard. They are so blinded by their focus on bringing others down that they’re essentially trying to win for the sake of winning, rather than for the good of the country. Not only is it extremely unprofessional, it is frightening to see how the state and quality of our nation may only worsen from here. From a PR standpoint, I don’t see how this ridiculous behavior would coax any of the general and undecided public to side with a specific candidate. While it keeps their name in the news, it’s off-putting and causes us to take these candidates less seriously, which is of vital importance when putting trust in a presidential candidate and future nominee.

  10. Nathalie

    Thanks for writing a blog about this issue, Professor, because it is one that everybody needs to address. What is going on during this Republican nomination race is absolutely disgraceful and makes a mockery of America’s political process. Being a political science minor who has always had a genuine interest in the field and looks forward to election years because of the candidates and thought-provoking debates, I am completely horrified and disheartened to even watch any political debate because of how ridiculous and senseless they are. The way these “politicians” are conducting themselves in this election is not only laughable, but also shameful. They all clearly need a lesson in public relations.

  11. Kazys

    Decorum, class, and attention to thoughtful communication strategy is, sadly, missing from the GOP primaries…… I agree with your observations.
    However, after spending 30+ years in business I was initially shocked by what went / goes on behind closed doors. Vulgarity was “required” and insults were the “standard”. Ironically I observed this more and more in the higher level of management. The higher the level, VP and above, the more free flowing the vulgarity was. Recently I was upset at the vulgarity a director in the company I worked in constantly used during our conference calls with a supplier of ours. I told him that I was embarrassed but being my senior he ignored my request. I later mentioned it to his boss the CEO who looked at me funny and said the ” This is how business operated …. Did you know Meg Whittman? ….. She has the worst ‘Sailor month’ in business!!’ With that he left me standing there! Again, yes I agree that these elections are ‘different’ but no different then what happens ‘Behind closed doors’ in business every day!

    1. jmorosoff Post author

      Sorry to hear that, Kaz. In all my years of working, I’ve never encountered abusive, foul language as a way of doing business. An occasional curse word of course, but never what you’ve described. Guess I’ve been lucky.

  12. Lauren A.

    I think that the hostility that some of the candidates have towards one another in this years election is absurd. Though there may have been other elections in which people have said negative things towards one another, there has never been so many in one election. Each of the people running are colleagues and should start acting that way. They may be running against each other, but that does not mean they have to be nasty with one another. In PR, professionals compete for jobs all the time, but we still maintain good relationships with one another. Not only is the “bullying” in this election uncalled for, it hurts the candidates overall image and reputation. People should not want to vote for a person who is obnoxiously mean to his fellow canidates. Overall, the negativity in this election is absurd and uncalled for.

  13. gmorah

    U.S politics encourages unrestrained freedom of expression, more especially where the Presidential race is much more competitive than any other. So, I don’t seem to see any big deal about the confrontations during debates, more especially done in good faith.

    Meanwhile, historically and interestingly, political forecasters are stunningly not predicting who’s winning in or dropping out from the Race, the whole fiasco is increasing the pressures among the candidates, which may have resulted in desperate attacks during the debates. And don’t forget that most of these candidates have sponsors who are betting on them to win…

  14. capriceoliver

    I have been totally disgusted with this election process. I’ve found myself less attentive because I’m not interested in the antics. I do know I’ll eventually have to vote but at this rate I just dont know!

  15. Lysa Carre

    The Republican candidates of 2016 are horrific examples of how one should conduct themselves when running a presidential campaign of the U.S. It is very sad that the candidates are too easily sidetracked and distracted by putting each other down; rather than focusing on the critical issues our nation is facing in today’s society. As adults and so called “professionals,” these candidate should have better judgment to conduct themselves and their opponents in a respectful manner, no matter what occurs throughout the debates and race for presidency. Degrading others and being condescending is solely a reflection of the person’s character who chooses to conduct themselves in such a disgusting way. Instead the Republican candidates should portray their own knowledge, talents, and skillets to prove why they would be the best President of the U.S . As the old saying goes, “honey always brings more bees.”

  16. Mariana Sava

    No just this presidential election, but politicians in general are ridiculous (maybe not all, but most). Instead of trying to convince us that they are good people, good enough to lead this country, they hurl insults at each other, like that will make us see them in a better light. A good leader is civil and composed while talking to opponents.

  17. SShak

    This presidential race has started to stress me out, especially as primaries have begun. Trump started off as pointing out issues that seemed ridiculous to most, but has begun wreaking havoc on the entire race. Other candidates feel the need to address his ridiculous and respond to it with even more ridiculousness. At this point, I feel the future of the US is in jeopardy if this continues.

  18. Vanessa Major

    Effective Communicators do not have to bad mouth an opponent to make themselves look better. It’s no longer surprising what comes out the mouths of some politicians. Politicians easily forget that their character reflected in the words they choose to speak.

  19. syanok

    It seems that politics brings out the worst in people. In my life, I cannot personally recall a debate or campaign where a candidate has not launched verbal attacks at their opponents. Politicians themselves have to be effective communicators in order to gain support and share the key messages of their platform. They often find themselves in crisis as well, mainly when undesirable information about them surfaces and they go in defense mode. . The main area where politicians differ in their communicative efforts to public relations people is in their willingness to slander others and even fabricate stories in order to sway their publics. I believe political campaigns should be more focused on what their plans are and what they plan to do for the people. Not about how they feel about another candidate.

  20. Nikita Hakels

    President is a very important person for a country choosing the right candidate is a huge responsibility, because he/she is the one that will represent you as a nation in from of the entire world and I do agree that this requires great communication skills to make the citizens feel safe, but unfortunately now the elections is just about winning thats it. It is sad but its a fact.

  21. Elaine

    Honestly, I understand this behavior because all people will fight with their interest. It is make sense. Also, I don’t think this campaign can avoid rumor because all candidates want to run for a president. We only do one thing when people fight against you and the spread of rumors that is keep calm and let the public know the truth. We don’t keep silent and we also cannot say more words to explain. We just do the right thing. But no matter what is the truth, I also hope this campaign can be held in an harmonious atmosphere.

  22. Judea Hartley

    I think the 2016 political debate is going in a very sad direction. Once upon a time, political candidates and other figures actually cared in the direction in which this country went. Political figures actually cared about important issues such as gun control, immigration laws, and global warming. Not only did they care, but they formed blue prints to help them accomplish set goals. President Barack Obama has been deemed as the most effective president.This classification is not just because he accomplished extraordinary things such as creating the ”Making Home Affordable” home refinancing plan, but because he is charismatic and understands the relationship between the white house and its various publics/stakeholders.

    The American people need to be assured that they will be lead by a leader that has a plan and a heart. When Donald Trump makes derogatory comments and slurs at other candidates, it doesn’t make him look like a better candidate. Sadly, I think he thinks that it does. Not only Donald Trump, but the rest of the political candidates have shown unethical behavior. I wonder if they are aware of the struggle that they may encounter while trying to build trustworthy and notable relationships with various stakeholders.

  23. A.Murphy

    This is a stunning example on why choosing a candidate to vote for is so difficult; not because there are such wonderful candidates to choose from but rather because they are all so awful.
    As a public figure as someone who holds great influence and power, it should be your responsibility to be a role model to the people. These candidates are absolutely not role models.
    I feel like the people running the country should hold certain ideals and live up to a particular set of expectations. Obviously this is me being naive because this is not something that has happened yet in my lifetime nor is it something that I expect will ever happen in my future.
    It really is such a shame that this is the future of our country.

  24. xuhansite

    Presidential campaign would rather be grave and serious than insulting. Candidates should use their talents and good communication skills to win a good impression. The focus of debates is to improve the impact and effectiveness of their communication. However, these examples show that president campaigns has been focused on destroying opponents’ images and reputations. Those candidates presented a bad social mood and produced a negative social effect. In short, their communication strategies are certainly not desirable.

  25. taylorpirone20

    I feel as though the debates have been ridiculous. I wouldn’t say that I am into politics. However, I find watching the debates painful. Not because I don’t agree with the points and policies being argue. With this year’s debates, I rarely even know the points that are being argued. Instead, it seems more like the candidates are too busy bashing one another. It’s a disgusting display of people skills. I think that none of the candidates are fit for the presidency, solely because they have no idea on how to speak to one another. And it would be easy to blame the PR teams for this. Unfortunately, you can’t. Because if the PR team of one candidate chose a more peaceful approach, that candidate would be sure to lose their following.

  26. Shawna Gregson

    I do agree with your reflection that the race for the Republican candidate has become extremely ugly. Insults (that have nothing to do with the candidates ability to be President) are being flung left and right. This is definitely something I have not witnessed before and I feel like this tactic has majorly stemmed from the potential Republican candidate Donald Trump. Trump has been taking low blows at every other Republican nominee, and his insults do reflect those a schoolyard bully. i just think this is more reason to not vote for Trump, do we really want a bully running our country?

  27. Amy Wang

    I grew up in the country where the members of the legislative could throw things on each other and had fights in the middle of meetings. To be honest, it is not surprised to see politicians doing unethical behaviors to achieve their goals. It seems a common tactics used in the political public relationship field. People are always trying to find out the scandals of their opponents, make up the stories, insult each other, etc. Maybe the root of the problem is not on the politicians or their PR teams. It could be on the public and the audience. Undeniably, people like and accept to see the schoolboy bullying on the politicians. As long as those candidates get the attention they want, they will continue doing this over and over again, After all, if you do not attach your opponents, they will still come to you. Being silent or nice is definitely not a game in the politics.

  28. laurenconway97

    This presidential race has become so ridiculous and immature at this point. I saw a blog on Facebook about the way this may affect the younger generations. If these politicians can “bully” each other then what is stopping kids on the playground from doing the same thing? Although you brought up historical examples that prove this immaturity isn’t a new tactic; it still is no excuse for this behavior. I hope these candidates will realize that this childish behavior is getting them nowhere. On a positive note, at least the younger generation is tuning in and starting to pay attention so we can demand specifics, rather than continued absurd rhetoric.

  29. Jillian Berardi

    The flinging of insults left and right is honestly getting old. The time for our country to elect our new president will be here sooner than we know it. I’m tired of every GOP debate revolving around who threw the best “punch” rather than what these candidates views are on the real issues at hand. At least the Democratic debates have substance. There is something really wrong when in one debate the candidates throw insults right out of the gate in an attempt to boost their precious egos and in another one the first issue of concern is the Flint water crisis. It’s extremely concerning when a potential president is acting so immature and childish that we have to tell them to “grow up”.

  30. Emily Weeks

    I think that this is a good call to attention for how horrific the presidential candidates have gotten with attacking each other. It gets childish when candidates mock each other as Trump did during the debates commenting on Rubio sweating a lot. Campaigns are supposed to be a platform for policies but have become more and more about attacking others candidates on a personal level.

  31. Elizabeth Giangarra

    Throughout this presidential race there have been many controversies. I truly believe that any PR is good PR although out watching this campaign i feel as though it has become a level of stupidity. This election has gotten me so uninterested, with all of the antics that is involved. I believe that these men and women should race against each other with a certain degree of respect , which is something that has completely gone out of the window. As a young women who is concerned about the government of the country she lives in, the way these candidate are acting i don’t believe represent them with a good reputation. Which greatly concerned me .

  32. Lauren Denker

    I think this is extremely prominent right now because our current presidential candidates, especially the GOP candidates, have been focusing more on making fun of each other and name calling than the important issues at hand. Donald Trump is constantly doing this instead of talking about policies or anything mildly important. PR is especially important around the time of the presidential debates because good/bad PR can make or break a candidate. It is also important for the candidates to always watch what they are saying because all the name calling and stupid remarks are terrible PR for the candidates.

  33. daniellehkent

    I was recently discussing the nature of politics with some friends of mine and we noted that relationships between politicians of opposing parties are a thing of the past. There was once a time when politics stayed separate from friendships and after a long day of debating on Capitol Hill, senators went out to grab drinks and decompress with friends regardless of their inherently different political views. Now politics has become so personal that it becomes impossible to forge friendships with political opponents. This change has also negatively impacted political action; the passage of bills has become a nearly impossible process because opposing parties are so unwilling to compromise.

  34. Danielle Tana

    It truly doesn’t surprise me at how messy and unprofessional the debate has been getting. That’s what you get when you put people like Donald Trump on a pedestal. It’s sad that people haven’t come to the realization that childishness like name-calling during a presidential debate isn’t right. Communication is key in any type of campaign and it’s obviously lost somewhere in the abyss of Trumps idiotic remarks over the past few months. Name-calling and acting like middle schoolers might get media attention, but is it worth damaging reputation?

  35. ari okonofua

    Presidential debates are terrible and degrading now a days. None of the candidates have class. In my opinion, their stance on certain issues (using key messages) are never clear because the main focus are the insults that they give one another. This entire presidential race bothers me that we’d have such immature and childish “adults” soon to run the United States of America.

  36. Bahati Louis

    Unfortunately I don’t think these nasty insults will stop any time soon especially as Trump as the front runner for the republican party. I think this trend will continue only because people seem to be responding to this behavior. The republican primaries have shown one of the highest voter turn outs in years and it’s all because of Trump. Not only the voters are responding to Trump’s outlandish comments but also the other candidates. In the beginning of the debate other candidates such as Mike Huckabee tried to out trump Trump which he (and others) weren’t very successful at in the long run. Trump was even able to get the establishments prize candidate Marco Rubio to get down in the dirt with him through his constant personal attacks. I think the establishment really wants to try and stay as political correct and professional as possible but that’s becoming harder to do when the voters are not responding to them. It should be interesting (and pretty scary) to see how the rest of this race turns out.

  37. zhenpanda

    I think there’s something to be said about thoughtful communication strategies and the lack thereof by GOP candidate’s. I think the GOP candidates are either too honest or being blunt for the sake of being blunt; as always, I know little of politics and have little trust in those who can abuse power.

  38. Tiffany Vellis

    I agree with a comment from earlier, “any PR is good PR.” At least that seems to be the case during this election. The front runner for the republican party, Donald Trump, has used dirty tactics from the very beginning to get under the skin of his opponents, but seemingly his own party as of late. While it certainly makes for exciting television and I believe it will be a historical election, it is also certainly be written down as one of the nastiest in history.

  39. shollwedel

    I think one of my favorite moments of this election cycle was when Jeb Bush commented, “You’re not going to be able to insult your way to the presidency” after a back and forth with Donald Trump. The Republican race has become more and more about who can sling the nastiest mud at each other rather than the actual issues involved in the race. It should be interesting to see what happens once a nominee is chosen for the Republicans and they have to campaign against the Democratic nominee. In contrast, the Democratic race has involved criticisms on the other candidates policies and past practices instead of the idea that Marco Rubio sweats a lot, or even references to their genitals in the middle of an official debate. It’s disheartening to see what should be a matter of civil discussion and debate turned into a name calling contest not unlike those found in playgrounds across America. I can only hope at some point, someone takes a step back and realizes how ridiculous their party looks to the public and starts brushing up on their PR lessons real quick.

  40. kn3vil

    The worst of this is that of all the candidates, the leading candidate is the one who says the most of the insane comments, rumors, and insults. It brings back the saying “any PR is good PR”. Trump certainly has grabbed attention with his many quotes, and unfortunately it has gotten him far.

  41. kristinaweller

    I am hoping that as the presidential debates continue and we move forward in the current race that we begin to actually gain an insight as to what the candidates will do for our country and less about who can slander who better, and that goes for both democrats and republicans. I want to hear about policy, eligibility, experience, and what each candidates vision is for the future of the United States.

  42. Rachelg

    The amount of childish bicker we have seen in the GOP debates is unbelievable. This is the first election that I will be legally allowed to take part in, and watching the Republicans fight like junior high aged individuals makes me question how reliable the American system is. How can we expect someone like Donald Trump, who hates literally everyone, to lead us? He will say anything and everything to get supporters, which from a PR standpoint, is pretty good, but unethical. He says he will make America great again, but I’m pretty sure thats on his unending list of lies. They say that history has a way of repeating itself, and I’m afraid that if Donald Trump, or any GOP candidate is elected, it will not be good.

  43. Kyle Kandetzki

    It has gotten to the point where you have to accept that in the presidential race, creating controversy and stirring the pot is the way to get attention. Though Trump has simply been a bully, and a scary person to consider as a presidential nominee, even those that don’t want to get into a war of words have been thrown in the fire.

    Sanders and Clinton both seemed to want to keep things calm and friendly early in the race, but as time wears on, each is looking for an edge, and attacks on character and policy have increased, though not to the level of the GOP.

    Politics and media is an odd field, so much so that one may have to sacrifice a preferred public persona to receive attention in a race.

  44. John Grillea

    Class is out the window when it comes to this presidential debate. They remind me more of celebrities in a heated battle taking shots at one another! Obviously, these candidates all have extensive PR teams, but I feel like they’re just saying whatever they want for the most part. I don’t think it will ever be how it once was regarding respect for your opponent.

  45. pjze618

    The verbal attacks on each candidate are horrifying. It’s impossible to watch a debate because they very rarely talk policy. From a PR standpoint, it will be hard to take any of these candidates seriously if they do get into office because all of this vitriolic hate is now out in the world and people will remember that these candidates were so nasty to one another

  46. Emily Racanelli

    This year’s presidential debate has certainly turned into a war of words. It seems almost unreal how unprofessional candidates have been, slinging petty insults and childish comments instead of focusing on vital issues. However, I’m not sure if you can trace this back to the PR professionals relating to this, because the candidates just speak on their own and take little advice from anyone.
    As we have discussed in class, the work of a PR representative can only go so far. If the client isn’t willing to take action and prove their commitment, it’s all in vain. I speak only based on assumption here, but I have a feeling that Donald Trump probably doesn’t listen to the advice from his PR team. While he is doing a solid job at getting people’s attention, it is in the wrong way. Something of this caliber wouldn’t even be so serious if it were for a lesser issue. When it comes to running a country, words need to be exchanged for actions.
    This article taught me that this year’s election is not exceptionally dysfunctional. Maybe because I was younger in other ones and not even alive for those mentioned in this blog post, but the 2016 campaign stood out to me for its unprofessionalism. It appears that things have always been this way, with people using elementary-level insults just to tear someone else down.
    In the end, what does it prove? Does this negative PR and gaining attention through ridiculous actions really gain public support. With the increased interest in Canadian citizenship that has come about in recent months, I think not.

  47. Niki Rihal

    The presidential race has gotten so ridiculous to a point that I can’t even watch the debates anymore when they are televised. I know that it is going to be grown men acting like children and giving long-winded answers when responding to a question, so I usually follow the debate through social media (Twitter, or BuzzFeed posts about it right after the event is over). I am so appalled at the level of stupidity this election has gotten to, to the point where it has turned me off completely. Not to mention, I hate election season in general, but I know that come September to November, I’ll have to make a decision on a candidate. Hopefully by then, things will have shaped up into something a little less petty and childish, to something I actually want to fully engage in and not feel like I’m losing brain cells every time Donald Trump opens his mouth.

  48. Michael Block

    Professor Morosoff continues to provide the reader with both lucid commentary and illuminating historical examples.


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